A job safety analysis (JSA), often referred to as a job hazard analysis (JHA), is a method employed in the identification of hazards associated with a particular job or project. While the main goal of this procedure is to reduce the risk of job hazards or injury to employees, understanding the right way to executing this evaluation is key.
To successfully carry out a JSA or JHA, you need to:
Stratify the job (divide the job or task into simple steps)
- Fish out the hazards peculiar to each step
- Discuss and evaluate these hazards with employees.
- Spell out ways to eradicate or mitigate these hazards.
This article promises to share with you every bit of information you need to know about job safety analysis. If at any point you have unanswered questions, kindly reach out via any of our contact information.
Jobs That Require Job Safety Analysis
Now that we already have an idea of what JSA is and its primary function, let’s take a look at the type of jobs that require this analysis:
- Complex Jobs: These usually require a guide or written instructions. Pilots or flight engineers belong here.
- New Or Existing Jobs Susceptible To Constant Modifications: Requires you to be up-to-date at all times. Collectors of biodegradable refuse materials should keep this in mind.
- Intertwined Jobs: These are jobs where every worker’s fate is intertwined. A single mistake from an employee can ruin everything. Machine and equipment operators usually belong here.
- Renown Jobs: These are popular gigs with the highest rate of injuries or illness (potential or not). Examples are maintenance and repair works.
Please note that within these categories, there are numerous jobs. And as long as your job predisposes a level of hazard, you need Job safety analysis.
Executing Job Safety Analysis the Right Way
Performing a job safety analysis involves 5 compulsory steps:
Prioritizing Jobs for Analysis
Every workplace predisposes a level of hazard. As an employer, you must understand that your organization is not immune to job hazard analysis. But because it is impossible to execute the procedure for all jobs at once, or should I say some jobs need it more than others, prioritizing or preferential arrangement becomes a thing.
Take, for example, a construction company. It is impossible to favor the record-keeping department above the labor department. This is because the degree of hazard exposure (both fatal and non-fatal) varies significantly. Hence, the laborers come first. That is prioritization.
Break The Job Into Layers
As soon as you are done prioritizing, and you already have your eyes fixed on a few jobs, the next step is to simplify these jobs into simpler tasks (layers or strata). The simplification process must not exceed ten steps to enjoy better results.
Let’s assume you are tasked with smoothing the sharp edges around a casting. You can simplify this mission into 3 steps, just like this:
- Reach into a box to the left of the machine, grasp casting, and carry to the wheel.
- Push casting against the wheel to grind off sharp edges.
- Place finished casting in a box to the right side of the machine.
Identify The Hazards In Each Layer
Here is where you ask questions like:
- If the task exposes workers to adverse weather conditions or temperature?
- What are the chances of a slip, fall, or trip?
- Are there possibilities of exposure to harmful radiation or chemicals? And more…
You also get to review all individual tasks and spell out the possible hazards that may ensue. Still using the smoothing operation as an example, the major hazard that may present itself here is hitting your hand against the metal box, the wheel, or the casting.
Formulate Preventive Measures
The National Institute for occupational health and safety has an effective control model in place, and I would like to share these standard measures with you:
- Elimination -The physical removal of the hazard.
- Substitution – Replacing the hazard.
- Engineering Controls – Isolate employees from the hazard.
- Administrative Controls – Change the employees’ mode of operation.
- Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – Physical equipment to protect workers.
Since hitting your hand against objects looks inevitable, providing protective gloves sounds like a smart option.
Document And Report Your Final Findings
Workers must find every inch of your report easy to understand and act on them accordingly. JHA fails when it does not clearly state the hazards associated with every task. The table below depicts proper documentation:
|TASKS||POTENTIAL HAZARD||PREVENTIVE MEASURE|
|Reach into a box to the left of the machine, grasp casting, and carry to wheel||Strike hand against the edge of metal box or casting. Casting may fall on your toes||Protective gloves and shoes|
|Push casting against the wheel to grind off sharp edges||Strike hand against the wheel, specks of dust, wheel breakage.||Protective gloves and goggles. Install an exhaust channel for the wheel|
|Place finished casting in the box to the right of the machine||Hit hand against metal box or casting.||Protective gloves Tools for the effective removal of end products should also be provided|
Benefits of Job Safety Analysis
1. Reduces The Risk Of Hazards
This is the major function of job safety analysis. Based on OSHA regulations, sick or injured workers must be replaced by short-time workers. This means you have to look into your profit and find a way to pay these new hands. Hence, if your JSA is sound, the risk of hazards should not affect your revenue negatively.
2. New Employees Enjoy Easy Integration
When you recruit new workers, take, for example, the pair of new hands I talked about earlier on, you need to integrate them into the system as soon as possible. Naturally, getting up to speed takes time, but with JSA, integration becomes easier.
3. Foster Better Communication
Completing a job hazard analysis involves the sharing of ideas between managers and employees. This review process makes it possible to identify safety issues your initial report did not consider. Besides, the fact that you give your workers the ability to share their views shows that you trust their expertise. Trust me; this impacts productivity positively.
4. Immune To Legal Or Financial Penalties
There are regulations guiding workplace safety. These regulations ensure that your workers are safe from hazards, and your organization is immune to legal penalties stipulated by OSHA. The last thing you want to experience is divulging some of your profit into paying fines.
Job Safety Analysis Template Download
Our free templates (hyperlink this to the template page as well) can help with these questions and assist in executing a proper job safety analysis.
Job Safety Analysis Template for Construction
Worksafe JSA Form
Frequently Asked Questions
I’m sure by now you know the answer to that is YES. Failure to assess specific hazards in the workplace attracts legal fines based on OSHA regulations.
When an accident or injury occurs, when the job changes, after a close call, following an employee complaint, if equipment suffers damage, or even per a scheduled review (e.g., biannually).
The 3 E’s of safety (evaluation, education, enforcement) are what keeps a workplace safe for work at all times.
The simple answer is ‘the scope’ of each evaluation.
JSA identifies hazards in line with specific or stratified tasks. In other words, task-specific hazards.
Risk assessment, on the other hand, reviews all the potential hazards in a facility (a bigger picture) at once. It can be performed as a routine safety check or after an accident occurs.